kel-3, kelǝ-, klā- extended klād-

    kel-3, kelǝ-, klā- extended klād-
    English meaning: to hit, cut down
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘schlagen, hauen”
    Note: separation from kel- “prick” and from skel- “cut, clip” is barely durchfũhrbar; beachte esp. Slav. *kólti “prick” = Balt kalti “hit”.
    Material: Gk. κελεός (*κελεFός) “Grũnspecht” (as δρυκολάπτης); κελέις ἀξίνη Hes.; κελοί “ξύλα” after Hesee under κελέοντας; δίκελλα “zweizinkige hack, mattock, hoe”; compare σκαλίς “hack, mattock, hoe” under skel- “cut, clip”;κόλος “mutilated, ungehörnt”, κόλ-ουρος “with gestutztem Schwanze”, κολάζω “verstũmmle, hindere; zũchtige”, κολούω “verstũmmle; hemme”; κολετρᾶν “tread”; with formants -bo-: κολοβός “mutilated” (compare also die root form *k(e)lemb-); with formants -bho-: κόλαφος ‘slap in the face, box on the ear, Backenstreich”, therefrom derived κολάπτω “behaue, behacke”, from the heavy basis κλά̆ω “break” (κλά̆σω, ἔκλᾰσα, ἀποκλάς, κλαστός), κλάσις “das Brechen, Beschneiden the Zweige”, κλάσμα “piece, fragment”, κλῆμα n. “twig, branch; vinelayer, -rebe”, Dimin. κληματίς esp. pl. “deadwood”; κλῆρος, Dor. κλᾶρος m. “Holzstũckchen as lot, fate, lot, fate, allotment “ (= O.Ir. clür, Welsh clawr “board, Tafel”, Bret. kleur “Gabelbaum am cart “); κλών, κλωνός m. ‘sprout, Trieb, Reis”, κλώνακα ῥάβδον Hes., κλῶναξ κλάδος Hes. (close kinship to: O.Ice. hlunnr “Rollwalzen for Fahrzeuge”, hlu(m)mr “the obere thick Teil of Ruders” from *hlunma-?) - κλῶμαξ, -ακος m. “ cairn, pile of stones set up as a memorial or mark of some kind, rocks”; Lat. calamitas “damage” (from *calamo- from *calimo-, IE *kele-mo- “beaten”), in addition incolumis “unversehrt”; further from *kel-nō : percellō, -culi ‘schlage to Boden, shatter”, se procellere ‘sich hinwerfen”, procella f. “heftiger storm”, recellō ‘schnelle back”; not *kel-dō because of Gaul. GN Su-cellus “good Schläger”; O.Ir. clür etc. see above S. 545; Lith. kalù, kálti, Ltv. kal”u, kalu, kal̃t “hit, schmieden”, Lith. pãkalas ‘sensenkeil”, príe-, prei-kãlas “Ambos”, O.Pruss. kalo-peilis “Hackmesser”, Lith. káltas “chisel”, O.Pruss. calte “Mark (Mũnze)”, i.e. “geschlagenes = geprägtes Geld”, Lith. kálvis “ smith “, causative Lith. káldinti ‘schmieden (lassen)”, Ltv. kal̃dît ds.; Lith. kuliù, kùlti “dreschen”, Ltv. kul”u, kũlu, kul̃t “hit, thrash, dreschen”; Lith. kélmas “ stump “, kann also “geschnitten, split” sein; O.Bulg. etc. koljǫ klati “prick, schlachten” (O.Bulg. also ‘sacrifice”), Russ. kolótь “prick, schlachten; split, hacken”; O.Bulg. kolъ “peg, plug”, Russ. koɫ, gen. koɫá “ shaft, pole, picket, pole”, ablaut.*kъlъ in Clr. koɫ (gen. kɫa) “Eckzahn, Hauzahn”, Sloven. kɛ̀l (gen. klà); Cz. klanice “ shaft, pole”, Pol. kɫonica ‘seitenholz am cart “ (auf participle *kolno- to klati being based on); Serb. kláto “kind of neck yoke for Schweine”, Cz. klát “ stump, clot, chunk, club, cudgel” (= Lith. káltas see above); Church Slavic pro-kle ́ju, -klěti “germinate”, Russ. (etc.) klin “wedge” (formation as mlinъ to meljǫ); doubtful Slav.*kolt-jǫ, -iti in O.Bulg. klaštǫ , klatiti “move, shake, bump, poke”, Russ. koločú , kolotít “hit, knock; chatter” etc.; whether in addition zero grade r. koltátьsja ‘sich bewegen, wobble, sway”? d-extension kelǝd-, klüd-: Gk. κλαδαρός (*klǝderos) “frail, breakable; abgelebt”, κλαδάσαι σεῖσαι Hes., ablaut. καλαδία ῥυκάνη Hes., κλάδος m. “twig, branch”, conservative d-stem *κλάς, κλάδεσι etc. ds., κλαδών, -ονος Hes. ds., κλαστάζω “beschneide den grapevine “; Lat. clüdēs f. “ injury; damage, mischief, Niederlage”; M.Ir. claidim “grabe” (with ad- “ pursue, hunt, chase, fischen” etc.), Welsh claddu, Bret. claza “dig”, M.Ir. clad, Welsh cladd “ditch, trench, channel”; lengthened grade Welsh clawdd, Corn. claud “ditch, trench, channel”, Bret. kleuz “ditch, trench, channel, hedge “ (*klüdo-); Welsh cleddyf ‘sword”, Bret. klézé ‘sword, blade” (cleddyf diss. from *cleðyð, Celt. *kladi̯os), Ir. claideb is Lw. from dem Welsh, Lat. gladius from dem Celt.; M.Ir. caill (gen. caille) “wood, forest”, Welsh celli “wood, forest”, Corn. kelli “nemus” (Celt. *kaldī); O.Ir. Welsh coll, Bret. koll “ruin, damage”; M.Ir. cellach “war, fight” and die with it related O.Ice. hildr f. “fight, struggle, Kampfgöttin”, O.S. O.E. hild “fight, struggle, war, fight”, O.H.G. hiltia, hilta “fight, struggle” have IE -dh- and probably “hit, dreinhauen” as basic meaning; Goth. halts, O.Ice. haltr, O.E. healt, O.H.G. halz “lame” (= O.Ir. coll; basic meaning “ broken “), perhaps at first from gebrochenen Gliedmaßen; O.Ice. O.E. holt, O.H.G. holz “wood, wood, forest” (= κλάδος), in addition O.Ice. hjalt n. “ the hilt of a sword “, O.E. hilt f. ds., O.H.G. helza “ the hilt of a sword, Heft”, O.S. helta “Handgriff am rudder “; O.Bulg. klada “balk, beam, Block”, Russ. kolóda “HoIzblock, clot, chunk, tree truck, from a stem abgehauenes Stũck” etc.; Church Slavic kladivo “hammer” (Proto-Slav. *klüd-: Lat. clüdēs). Labial extension: klomb(h)o- in: Gk. κλαμβός “mutilated”, O.E. laempi-halt, lamp-healt “hinkend” (Specht IE Decl. 262); compare Lith. klumbas “lame”.
    References: WP. I 436 ff., WH. I 135 f., 225 f., 691, Specht IE Decl. 130 f., 262, 322, Trautmann 114 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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